CBD produces effects through various molecular pathways. Although CBD does not really bind with two of the cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2, it acts through several different receptor-independent channels. CBD enhances and inhibits the binding action of certain protein-coupled receptors.
Listed below are some of the receptor systems and their relationship with CBD.
CBD targets a specific serotonin receptor, the serotonin 1A receptor. Its affinity with this receptor is associated with a lot of CBD’s therapeutic properties.
Take note that serotonin receptors regulate the release of hormones like cortisol, which is responsible for metabolism and reactions to stress, and oxytocin, which affects social behavior. Serotonin receptors also affect a person’s mood, cognition, and appetite.
Enhancing the activation of serotonin 1A receptors supports the theory of how CBD impedes certain problems and disorders such as neuropathic pain, anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, and nausea from chemotherapy.
CBD binds to TRPV1 receptors, which are also called vanilloid receptors, to achieve a therapeutic effect. As an ion channel, TRPV1 plays a role in thermoregulation (temperature regulation), inflammation, and the perception of pain.
GPR55 is called the orphan receptor because researchers are still not sure if it belongs to a larger receptor family tree. It is involved in the process of modulating blood pressure, bone reabsorption, and bone density.
When it is overactive, GPR55 may cause osteoporosis. GPR55 also contributes to the multiplication and migration of cancer cells. CBD blocks GPR55 signaling. This could affect the likelihood of cancer cells proliferating under the right conditions.
Peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs), also known as “nuclear receptors,” are activated by CBDs to produce an anticancer effect. They are found on the surface of the cell’s nucleus. When activating a receptor known as PPAR-gamma, an antiproliferative effect begins. Its activation also causes tumors to regress in lung cancer cell lines.
CBD AS AN ANANDAMIDE REUPTAKE INHIBITOR
According to a study, CBD in the brain inhibits anandamide reuptake and breakdown, which increases endocannabinoid levels in the brain’s synapses. Anandamide is an extremely powerful, cannabis-like chemical in the brain. This, in turn, has neuroprotective effects against seizures and other problems.
Since it is a plant compound, CBD has to pass through the cell membrane to get inside a human cell and bind with a nuclear receptor. It does this by attaching itself with a fatty acid binding protein (FABP), which takes it into the cell’s interior. The same intracellular molecules also transport THC and the brain’s cannabis-like molecules, the endocannabinoids anandamide and 2AG, to different parts inside the cell.
CBD has a strong attraction to three kinds of FABPs. This causes CBD to compete with endocannabinoids. Once endocannabinoids are inside the cell, anandamide is broken down by fatty acid amide hydrolase, a metabolic enzyme. CBD interferes with endocannabinoids’ process by reducing anandamide’s access to transport FABP and delaying it from entering the cell.